Vacation Homes IRC 280A
Excerpt from § 280A. Disallowance of certain expenses in connection with business use of home, rental of vacation homes, etc. as it pertains to vacation homes
(d) Use as residence
(1) In general
For purposes of this section, a taxpayer uses a dwelling unit during the taxable year as a residence if he uses such unit (or portion thereof) for personal purposes for a number of days which exceeds the greater of—
(A) 14 days, or
(B) 10 percent of the number of days during such year for which such unit is rented at a fair rental.
For purposes of subparagraph (B), a unit shall not be treated as rented at a fair rental for any day for which it is used for personal purposes.
(2) Personal use of unit
For purposes of this section, the taxpayer shall be deemed to have used a dwelling unit for personal purposes for a day if, for any part of such day, the unit is used—
(A) for personal purposes by the taxpayer or any other person who has an interest in such unit, or by any member of the family (as defined in section 267(c)(4)) of the taxpayer or such other person;
(B) by any individual who uses the unit under an arrangement which enables the taxpayer to use some other dwelling unit (whether or not a rental is charged for the use of such other unit); or
(C) by any individual (other than an employee with respect to whose use section 119 applies), unless for such day the dwelling unit is rented for a rental which, under the facts and circumstances, is fair rental.
The Secretary shall prescribe regulations with respect to the circumstances under which use of the unit for repairs and annual maintenance will not constitute personal use under this paragraph, except that if the taxpayer is engaged in repair and maintenance on a substantially full time basis for any day, such authority shall not allow the Secretary to treat a dwelling unit as being used for personal use by the taxpayer on such day merely because other individuals who are on the premises on such day are not so engaged.
(3) Rental to family member, etc., for use as principal residence
(A) In general
A taxpayer shall not be treated as using a dwelling unit for personal purposes by reason of a rental arrangement for any period if for such period such dwelling unit is rented, at a fair rental, to any person for use as such person’s principal residence.
(B) Special rules for rental to person having interest in unit
(i) Rental must be pursuant to shared equity financing agreement Subparagraph (A) shall apply to a rental to a person who has an interest in the dwelling unit only if such rental is pursuant to a shared equity financing agreement.
(ii) Determination of fair rental In the case of a rental pursuant to a shared equity financing agreement, fair rental shall be determined as of the time the agreement is entered into and by taking into account the occupant’s qualified ownership interest.
(C) Shared equity financing agreement
For purposes of this paragraph, the term “shared equity financing agreement” means an agreement under which—
(i) 2 or more persons acquire qualified ownership interests in a dwelling unit, and
(ii) the person (or persons) holding 1 or more of such interests—
(I) is entitled to occupy the dwelling unit for use as a principal residence, and
(II) is required to pay rent to 1 or more other persons holding qualified ownership interests in the dwelling unit.
(D) Qualified ownership interest
For purposes of this paragraph, the term “qualified ownership interest” means an undivided interest for more than 50 years in the entire dwelling unit and appurtenant land being acquired in the transaction to which the shared equity financing agreement relates.
(4) Rental of principal residence
(A) In general
For purposes of applying subsection (c)(5) to deductions allocable to a qualified rental period, a taxpayer shall not be considered to have used a dwelling unit for personal purposes for any day during the taxable year which occurs before or after a qualified rental period described in subparagraph (B)(i), or before a qualified rental period described in subparagraph (B)(ii), if with respect to such day such unit constitutes the principal residence (within the meaning of section 121
) of the taxpayer.
(B) Qualified rental period
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “qualified rental period” means a consecutive period of—
(i) 12 or more months which begins or ends in such taxable year, or
(ii) less than 12 months which begins in such taxable year and at the end of which such dwelling unit is sold or exchanged, and
for which such unit is rented, or is held for rental, at a fair rental.
(e) Expenses attributable to rental
(1) In general
In any case where a taxpayer who is an individual or an S corporation uses a dwelling unit for personal purposes on any day during the taxable year (whether or not he is treated under this section as using such unit as a residence), the amount deductible under this chapter with respect to expenses attributable to the rental of the unit (or portion thereof) for the taxable year shall not exceed an amount which bears the same relationship to such expenses as the number of days during each year that the unit (or portion thereof) is rented at a fair rental bears to the total number of days during such year that the unit (or portion thereof) is used.
(2) Exception for deductions otherwise allowable
This subsection shall not apply with respect to deductions which would be allowable under this chapter for the taxable year whether or not such unit (or portion thereof) was rented.
(f) Definitions and special rules
(1) Dwelling unit defined
For purposes of this section—
(A) In general
The term “dwelling unit” includes a house, apartment, condominium, mobile home, boat, or similar property, and all structures or other property appurtenant to such dwelling unit.
The term “dwelling unit” does not include that portion of a unit which is used exclusively as a hotel, motel, inn, or similar establishment.
(2) Personal use by shareholders of S corporation
In the case of an S corporation, subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (d)(2) shall be applied by substituting “any shareholder of the S corporation” for “the taxpayer” each place it appears.
(3) Coordination with section 183
If subsection (a) applies with respect to any dwelling unit (or portion thereof) for the taxable year—
(A) section 183 (relating to activities not engaged in for profit) shall not apply to such unit (or portion thereof) for such year, but
(B) such year shall be taken into account as a taxable year for purposes of applying subsection (d) of section 183 (relating to 5-year presumption).
(4) Coordination with section 162 (a)(2)
Nothing in this section shall be construed to disallow any deduction allowable under section 162 (a)(2)
(or any deduction which meets the tests of section 162 (a)(2)
but is allowable under another provision of this title) by reason of the taxpayer’s being away from home in the pursuit of a trade or business (other than the trade or business of renting dwelling units).
(g) Special rule for certain rental use
Notwithstanding any other provision of this section or section 183
, if a dwelling unit is used during the taxable year by the taxpayer as a residence and such dwelling unit is actually rented for less than 15 days during the taxable year, then—
(1) no deduction otherwise allowable under this chapter because of the rental use of such dwelling unit shall be allowed, and
(2) the income derived from such use for the taxable year shall not be included in the gross income of such taxpayer under section 61.